6The numerical magnitude of the calculation of the indirect effects based on average row or column sums are the same. The average column effect can be interpreted as the impact of changing a particular element of an exogenous variable on the dependent variable of all other regions. The alternative interpretation based on average row sums corresponds to the impact on a particular element of the dependent variable as a result of a unit change in all elements of an exogenous variable (Elhorst 2014).