A Tale of Hidden Cities
Hidden cities within a city? During the last decade there is a large trending literature concerning urban and suburban poverty concentration patterns. However, few are the cases where adequate data exist at a low spatial level, in order for scientists to explore that kind of socio-spatial phenomena. This paper tries to investigate the evolution of poverty within urban and suburban space, under a multidimensional framework, during a period of severe economic crisis and austerity measures. The metropolitan area of Athens is used as our case study, for which available data at a municipal level enable the calculation of the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) for the years 2006 and 2011. Using cluster analysis based on the MPI values, three groups of municipalities are derived within Athens. For each one of them, a mean MPI index is calculated and then decomposed. The results indicate that there is a clear spatial concentration of poverty in the west suburban areas of Athens. The urban core of the city is characterised by middle-income municipalities, whilst the north-east and the south-east suburban areas experience low-poverty indicators. Finally, the results suggest that during the economic crisis period poor areas were affected the most.
Alkire, S., & Foster, J. (2011a). Counting and multidimensional poverty measurement. Journal of Public Economics, 95(7-8), 476–487. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpubeco.2010.11.006
Alkire, S., & Foster, J. (2011b). Understandings and misunderstandings of multidimensional poverty measurement. The Journal of Economic Inequality, 9(2), 289–314. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10888-011-9181-4
Allard, S., & Paisner, S. (2016). The Rise of Suburban Poverty. Oxford Handbooks Online. Retrieved 11 Nov. 2016, from http://www.oxfordhandbooks.com/view/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199935307.001.0001/oxfordhb-9780199935307-e-96.
Andersson, R., & Hedman, L. (2016). Economic decline and residential segregation: A Swedish study with focus on Malmö. Urban Geography, 1-21.
Apablaza, M., & Yalonetzky, G. (2013). Decomposing Multidimensional Poverty Dynamics. Young Lives Working Paper, Forthcoming.
Atkinson, B., & Marlier, E. (2010). Income and living conditions in Europe.
Berube, A., & Frey, W. H. (2002). A decade of mixed blessings: urban and suburban poverty in census 2000. Brookings Institution, Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy.
Bischoff, K., & Reardon, S. F. (2013). Residential segregation by income, 1970-2009. The Lost Decade.
Cooke, T. J. (2010). Residential mobility of the poor and the growth of poverty in inner-ring suburbs. Urban Geography, 31(2), 179-193.
Cooke, T., & Marchant, S. (2006). The changing intrametropolitan location of high-poverty neighbourhoods in the US, 1990-2000. Urban Studies, 43(11), 1971-1989.
Cooke, T. J., & Denton, C. (2015). The suburbanization of poverty? An alternative perspective. Urban Geography, 36(2), 300-313.
Duncan, O. D., & Duncan, B. (1955). Residential distribution and occupational stratification. American journal of sociology, 493-503.
Gotham, K. F. (2003). Toward an understanding of the spatiality of urban poverty: the urban poor as spatial actors. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 27(3), 723–737.
Green, A. E. (1998). The geography of earnings and incomes in the 1990s: an overview. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 16(6), 633–647. http://doi.org/10.1068/c160633
Hamnett, C. (2003). Unequal City: London in the Global Arena. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=el&lr=&id=k4nH4tiQHC8C&pgis=1
Hamnett, C. (2003). Gentrification and the middle-class remaking of inner London, 1961-2001. Urban studies, 40(12), 2401-2426.
Harris, R., & Longley, P. (2004). Targeting clusters of deprivation within cities. Applied GIS and spatial analysis, 89-110.
Hudnut, William H. (2003). Halfway to everywhere: A portrait of America’s first-tier suburbs. Washington, DC: Urban Land Institute.
Hunter, P. (2014). Poverty in suburbia: a Smith Institute study into the growth of poverty in the suburbs of England and Wales.
Jargowsky, P. A. (1996). Beyond the street corner: The hidden diversity of high-poverty neighborhoods. Urban Geography, 17(7), 579-603.
Jargowsky, P. A. (2002). Sprawl, concentration of poverty, and urban inequality. Urban sprawl: Causes, consequences, and policy responses, 39-72.
Jargowsky, P. (2003). Stunning progress, hidden problems. Washington: Brookings institution.
Jargowsky, P. A. (2013). Concentration of Poverty in the New Millennium. New York: Century Foundation.
Kalogirou S. (2011). Spatial inequalities and interpretative factors for the geographical distribution of declared income in Greece, Aihoros 11: 68-101.
Kingsley, G. T., & Pettit, K. L. (2003). Concentrated poverty: A change in course. Urban Institute.
Kneebone, E. (2014). The growth and spread of concentrated poverty, 2000 to 2008-2012. The Brookings.
Kneebone, E., & Berube, A. (2013). Confronting suburban poverty in America. Brookings Institution Press.
Lee, N., Adam, D., Rodríguez-Pose, A., Green, A., & Atfield, G. (2014). Cities, growth and poverty.
Maloutas T. (2001). The social morphology of cities, in: Maloutas (ed.), Social and Economic Atlas of Greece, Volume 1: The Cities, Athens/Volos: NCFSR/ University of Thessaly.
Maloutas, T. (2000). The Social and Economic Atlas of Greece. Volume I: The Cities National Centre for Social Research.
Maloutas, T. (2004). Segregation and residential mobility spatially entrapped social mobility and its impact on segregation in Athens. European Urban and Regional Studies, 11(3), 195-211.
Maloutas, T. (2007). Segregation, social polarization and immigration in Athens during the 1990s: theoretical expectations and contextual difference. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 31(4), 733-758.
Maloutas, T. (2015). 7 Socio-economic segregation in Athens at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Socio-Economic Segregation in European Capital Cities: East Meets West, 89, 156.
Maloutas, T., Emmanuel, D., & Pantelidou-Malouta, M. (2006). Athens–Social Structures, Practices and Attitudes: New Parameters and Trends 1980–2000. Athens: EKKE.
Maloutas, T., Arapoglou, V., Kandylis, G., & Sayas, J. (2012). Social polarization and de-segregation in Athens. Residential Segregation in Comparative Perspective. Making Sense of Contextual DiversityMaloutas, 257-285.
Massey, D. S. (2007). Categorically Unequal: The American Stratification System: The American Stratification System. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=el&lr=&id=IAOGAwAAQBAJ&pgis=1
Massey, D. S., & Denton, N. A. (1993). American apartheid: Segregation and the making of the underclass. Harvard University Press.
McMullen, S. C., & Smith, W. J. (2002). The Geography of Poverty in the Atlanta Region. Retrieved from https://books.google.gr/books/about/The_Geography_of_Poverty_in_the_Atlanta.html?id=VtHRnQEACAAJ&pgis=1
Musterd, S. (2005). Social and ethnic segregation in Europe: Levels, causes, and effects. Journal of urban affairs, 27(3), 331-348.
Musterd, S., Marcinczak, S., Van Ham, M., & Tammaru, T. (2015). Socio-Economic Segregation in European Capital Cities: Increasing Separation between Poor and Rich (discussion paper). IZA Discussion Paper 9603.
Noble, M., Wright, G., Smith, G., & Dibben, C. (2006). Measuring multiple deprivation at the small-area level. Environment and planning A, 38(1), 169-185.
Noble M, Wright G, Dibben C, Smith GAN, McLennan D, Anttila C, Barnes H, Mokhtar C, Noble S, Avenell D, Gardner J, Covizzi I, Lloyd M. (2004). Indices of Deprivation 2004.
Orford, S. (2004). Identifying and comparing changes in the spatial concentrations of urban poverty and affluence: a case study of inner London. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 28(6), 701-717.
Pacione, M. (2004). Environments of disadvantage: Geographies of persistent poverty in Glasgow. Scottish Geographical Journal, 120(1-2), 117–132. http://doi.org/10.1080/00369220418737196
Panori, A., Ballas, D., & Psycharis, Y. (2016). SimAthens: A spatial microsimulation approach to the estimation and analysis of small area income distributions and poverty rates in the city of Athens, Greece. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems.
Pantazis, P., and Psycharis, Y. (2016) Residential segregation based on taxable income in the metropolitan area of Athens, in Maloutas T., Spyrellis S. (eds) Athens Social Atlas. Digital compendium of texts and visual material (http://www.athenssocialatlas.gr/en/article/income-groups/)
Park Robert, E., Burgess Ernest, W., & McKenzie Roderick, D. (1925). The City. The University of Chicago Press, 1984, 239.
Pinch, S. (1993). Social polarization: a comparison of evidence from Britain and the United States. Environment and Planning A, 25(6), 779–795. http://doi.org/10.1068/a250779
Reardon, S. F., & Bischoff, K. (2011). Income inequality and income segregation1. American Journal of Sociology, 116(4), 1092–1153.
Sassen, S. (2001). The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo. Princeton University Press. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=PTAiHWK2BYIC&pgis=1
Scott, A. J., & Storper, M. (2015). The Nature of Cities: The Scope and Limits of Urban Theory. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 39(1), 1–15. http://doi.org/10.1111/1468-2427.12134
Soja, E. W. (1989). Postmodern Geographies: The Reassertion of Space in Critical Social Theory. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=el&lr=&id=xrmaSYfLOQ8C&pgis=1
Ward, J. H. (1963). Hierarchical Grouping to Optimize an Objective Function. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 58(301), 236–244. http://doi.org/10.1080/01621459.1963.10500845
Watson, T. (2009). Inequality and the measurement of residential segregation by income in American neighborhoods. Review of Income and Wealth, 55(3), 820–844.
Weziak-Bialowolska, D., & Dijkstra, L. (2014). Monitoring multidimensional poverty in the EU regions.
Copyright (c) 2017 Anastasia Panori
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
REGION is an open journal, and uses the standard Creative Commons license: Copyright We want authors to retain the maximum control over their work consistent with the first goal. For this reason, authors who publish in REGION will release their articles under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license. This license allows anyone to copy and distribute the article for non-commercial purposes provided that appropriate attribution is given to REGION and the authors. For details of the rights authors grant users of their work, see the "human-readable summary" of the license, with a link to the full license. (Note that "you" refers to a user, not an author, in the summary.) Upon submission, the authors agree that the following three items are true: 1) The manuscript named above: a) represents valid work and neither it nor any other that I have written with substantially similar content has been published before in any form except as a preprint, b) is not concurrently submitted to another publication, and c) does not infringe anyone’s copyright. The Author(s) holds ERSA, WU, REGION, and the Editors of REGION harmless against all copyright claims. d) I have, or a coauthor has, had sufficient access to the data to verify the manuscript’s scientific integrity. 2) If asked, I will provide or fully cooperate in providing the data on which the manuscript is based so the editors or their assignees can examine it (where possible) 3) For papers with more than one author, I as the submitter have the permission of the coauthors to submit this work, and all authors agree that the corresponding author will be the main correspondent with the editorial office, and review the edited manuscript and proof. If there is only one author, I will be the corresponding author and agree to handle these responsibilities.