Creativity, Community, & Growth: A Social Geography of Urban Craft Beer
To better understand the non-economic drivers of growth in emerging industries, this paper examines the craft beer industry. Specifically, the paper will review two examples—the Black Cloister Brewing Company in Toledo, OH and 3rd Turn Brewery, Louisville, KY—to understand how the values of entrepreneurs and local firms that are situated at the nexus of work, place, and creativity promote growth. Further, the paper will consider the socio-cultural meaning of creativity relative to the craft beer industry and the many ways in which the concept of innovation traditionally used by economic geographers to understand growth can be better understood within the context of creativity in some industries. In doing so, the paper represents a conceptual shift away from innovation towards creativity, as well as community.
Acitelli T (2015) When brewpubs started booming. All About Beer Magazine February 11. http://allaboutbeer.com/when-brewpubs-started-booming/
Agger M (2013) I love Brooklyn Brewery. The New Yorker March 5. http://www.newyorker.com/culture/culture-desk/i-brooklyn-brewery
Alexander D (2013) Beer entrepreneurs fuel comeback of struggling Cleveland neighborhood. Forbes November 26. (http://www.forbes.com/sites/danalexander/2013/11/26/beer-entrepreneurs-fuel-comeback-of-struggling-cleveland-neighborhood/#14cc94c3574f
All About Beer Magazine (2013) Join all about beer for a beer tasting with Wynkoop Brewing Co. All About Beer Magazine March 29. http://allaboutbeer.com/news/beer-tasting-with-wynkoop-brewing-co/
All About Beer Magazine (2015a) Stone brewing re-releases stone 12th anniversary bitter chocolate oatmeal stout. All About Beer Magazine January 25. http://allaboutbeer.com/news/stone-12th-anniversary-bitter-chocolate-oatmeal-stout/
All About Beer Magazine (2015b) Founders brewing co. Announces first backstage series beer of 2016: ‘mango magnifico’. All About Beer Magazine January 25. http://allaboutbeer.com/news/founders-brewing-backstage-series-2016-mango-magnifico/
All About Beer Magazine. (2015c) Cucumber beers: stars of the summer? All About Beer Magazine August 13. http://allaboutbeer.com/cucumber-beers/
All About Beer Magazine (2015d) Tea: an untapped beer ingredient? All About Beer Magazine April 23. http://allaboutbeer.com/tea-an-untapped-beer-ingredient/
All About Beer Magazine (2015e) Ninkasi brewing co. Announces artist in residence program. All About Beer Magazine June 26. http://allaboutbeer.com/news/ninkasi-brewing-co-announces-artist-in-residence-program/
Alonso, A. D. (2011) Opportunities and challenges in the development of micro-brewing and beer tourism: A preliminary study from Alabama. Tourism Planning & Development 8(4): 415-431
American Craft Beer (2015) The art of branding craft beer. American Craft Beer February 18. http://americancraftbeer.com/item/the-art-of-branding-craft-beer.html
American Homebrewers Association (2016) Homebrewing Stats. http://www.homebrewersassociation.org/membership/homebrewing-stats/
Anheuser-Busch (2016) Our neighborhoods. Our responsibility. http://anheuser-busch.com/index.php/our-responsibility/community-our-neighborhoods/
Audretsch D, Feldman, M (1996) R&D spillovers and the geography of innovation and production. The American Economic Review 86(3): 630-640.
Beer Wars (2010) Dir. Anat Baron. Ducks in a Row Entertainment Corporation 2010. DVD
Bragg V. (2016) New bill proposed to help attract more craft breweries to Virginia. WSET.com January 8. http://wset.com/news/local/new-bill-proposed-to-help-attract-more-craft-breweries-to-virginia
Brewers Association (2015a) The year in beer: U.S. brewery count reaches all-time high of 4,144. December 2. https://www.brewersassociation.org/press-releases/the-year-in-beer-u-s-brewery-count-reaches-all-time-high-of-4144/
Brewers Association (2015b) Number of breweries. https://www.brewersassociation.org/statistics/number-of-breweries/
Brewers Association (2015c) Brewers association reports big gains for small and independent brewers. July 27.
Brewers Association (2016d) Small and independent brewers continue to grow double digits. March 22. https://www.brewersassociation.org/press-releases/small-independent-brewers-continue-grow-double-digits/
Brewers Association (2015e) Brewers Association 2015 beer style guidelines. https://www.brewersassociation.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/2015-brewers-association-beer-style-guidelines.pdf)
Brewers Association (2015f) Tom Schaeffer. https://www.brewersassociation.org/profile/tom-schaeffer/
Calagione S. (2011) Brewing Up A Business: Adventures In Beer. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ
Ceres (2016) Brewery climate declaration. http://www.ceres.org/declaration/about/climate-declaration-campaigns/brewery#breweries
City of Louisville (2014) Mayor’s Local Brewery Workgroup Report. City of Louisville, Louisville, KY.
Choi DY, Stack MH (2005) The all-American beer: A case of inferior standard (taste) prevailing. Business Horizons 48(1): 79—86.
Cone T (2012) Number of US famers markets surges. USA Today, August 3 http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/nation/story/2012-08-03/farmers-markets-increasing/56727330/1
Crowell, C (2013) Craft beer consumer stats: How will they affect your business plan? Craft Brewing Business, May 3 http://www.craftbrewingbusiness.com/business-marketing/craft-beer-consumer-stats-how-will-affect-your-business-plan/
Cunningham B (2015a) Black Cloister Brewing Co. taps opening date. Toledo Blade February 26 http://www.toledoblade.com/Peach-Weekender/2015/02/26/Black-Cloister-Brewing-Co-taps-opening-date.html
Cunningham B (2015b) Black Cloister’s Fink is head of the class. Toledo Blade September 24 http://www.toledoblade.com/Peach-Weekender/2015/09/24/Black-Cloister-s-Fink-is-head-of-the-class.html
Day P (2015) How the craft beer revolution started. BBC News December 30 http://www.bbc.com/news/business-35120401
Dogfish Head (2016) Ancient ales. http://www.dogfish.com/ancientales
Duva, N (2014) Elitism, or something else? Millennials and the war on big beer. CNBC.com November 8 http://www.cnbc.com/2014/11/07/why-those-elitist-millennials-hate-big-beer.html
Ellison S (2006) After making beer ever lighter, Anheuser faces a new palate. Wall Street Journal April 26 http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB114601602889736048
Fallows J (2010) Jimmy Carter: Not the king of beers? (updated). The Atlantic August 19 http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2010/08/jimmy-carter-not-the-king-of-beers-updated/61599/
Fallows J (2016) Eleven Signs a City will Succeed. The Atlantic March http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2016/03/eleven-signs-a-city-will-succeed/426885/?utm_source=SFFB
Fink, Shannon (2016) Personal Interview. Toledo, OH, February 9
Flack W (1997) American microbreweries and neolocalism: "Ale-ing" for a sense of place. Journal of Cultural Geography 16(2): 37-53
Florida R, Kenney M (1990) Silicon Valley and Route 128 won’t save us. California Management Review 33(1): 68-88.
Florida R (2012) The Rise of the Creative Class, Revisited. Basic Books, New York.
Florida R (2014) The creative class and economic development. Economic Development Quarterly 28(3): 196–205
Founders Brewing Company (2016) History http://foundersbrewing.com/history/
Galt RE, O’Sullivan L, Beckett J, Hiner CC (2012) Community supported agriculture is thriving in the central valley. California Agriculture 66: 8-1
Gilman HR (2014) How millennials' use of social networks explains their politics. Brookings Tech Tank November 24 http://www.brookings.edu/blogs/techtank/posts/2014/11/24-politics-social-networks-millennials?utm_source=Facebook&utm_medium=Social&utm_campaign=BrookingsFB11243&utm_content=BrookingsFB11243
Glaeser EL (2006) Reinventing Boston: 1630-2003. Journal of Economic Geography 5: 119-153
Grossman K (2013) Beyond the pale: The story of the Sierra Nevada Brewing Co. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ
Hayden G, Shinkle D, Shinkle B (2015) Personal interview. Jeffersontown, KY, December 22
Hayter R (2000) Flexible Crossroads: The Restructuring of British Columbia’s Forest Economy. UBC Press, Vancouver, BC
Herz J (2014) Craft Brewers’ 2014 charitable donations top $71M. Brewers Association https://www.brewersassociation.org/communicating-craft/craft-brewers-contribute-millions-to-local-causes/
Hopunion (2016) A hop for every flavor and style. https://www.hopunion.com/hop-varieties/
Imarenezor C (2016) Super Bowl 50: Anheuser-Busch returns to commercial lineup for 28th year. Vibe January 16 http://www.vibe.com/2016/01/super-bowl-50-anheuser-busch/
Kaufman A, Gittell R, Merenda M, Naumes W, and Wood C (1994) Porter’s model for geographic competitive advantage: The case of New Hampshire. Economic Development Quarterly 8(1): 43-66
Kaufman BE (1990) A new theory of satisficing. The Journal of Behavioral Economics 19(1): 35-51.
Kirchenbauer H (2014) Philanthropy is alive and well in the craft beer industry. San Diego Troubadour June http://sandiegotroubadour.com/2014/06/philanthropy-is-alive-and-well-in-the-craft-beer-industry/
Lee SY, Florida R, Gates G (2010) Innovation, human capital, and creativity. International Review of Public Administration 14(3): 13-24.
Loosemore B (2016) Falls City announces new bottled beers. The Courier Journal March 1 http://www.courier-journal.com/story/life/food/spirits/beer/2016/03/01/falls-city-announces-new-bottled-beers/81158592/
Lyons D (1995) Agglomeration economies among high technology firms in advanced production areas: The case of Denver/Boulder. Regional Studies 29(3): 265-278
MacPherson A (1997) The role of producer service outsourcing in the innovation performance of New York state manufacturing firms. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 87(1): 52-71
Magee T (2014) So you want to start a brewery? The Lagunitas story. Chicago Review Press, Chicago, IL
Mah L (2016) Art Hops beer and logo design make debut at Friday night Art Hop. Mlive January 9 http://www.mlive.com/entertainment/kalamazoo/index.ssf/2016/01/art_hops_beer_and_logo_design.html
Malecki E (1991) Technology and Economic Development: The Dynamics of Local, Regional, and National Change. New York, NY, Longman
Mann D (2016) Five funny names in Louisville beer-and why brewers come up with them. Louisville Business First February 1 http://www.bizjournals.com/louisville/news/2016/02/01/five-funnynames-in-louisville-beer-and-why-brewers.html
Markusen A (1996) Sticky places in slippery space: A typology of industrial districts. Economic Geography 72(3): 293-313
Maslow AH (1954) Motivation and Personality. Harper & Row, New York, NY
Marx K (1959) Economic and philosophical manuscripts of 1844 Progress Publishers, Moscow
McCann E (2002) The cultural politics of local economic development: Meaning making, place-making, and the urban policy process. Geoforum 33(3): 385-398
McWilliams J (2014) The ecological creed of craft beer. Conservation http://conservationmagazine.org/2014/03/sustainable-practices-in-craft-brewing/
Mintel (2013) The rise of craft beer in the US – craft beer sales have doubled in the past six years and are set to triple by 2017. January 23 http://www.mintel.com/press-centre/food-and-drink/the-rise-of-craft-beer-in-the-us-craft-beer-sales-have-doubled-in-the-past-six-years-and-are-set-to-triple-by-2017
Monloss K (2016) How Budweiser ditched its old look and crafted a new visual identity. Adweek January 24
National Gardening Association (2014) Garden to Table: A 5-year Look at Food Gardening in America Williston, VT, National Gardening Association
Ohio City Neighborhood (2016a) History. http://www.ohiocity.org/history
Ohio City Neighborhood (2016b) Neighborhood guide. http://www.ohiocity.org/guide
Ohio City Neighborhood (2016c) Demographics. http://www.ohiocity.org/demographics
Ohio City Neighborhood (2016d) About the neighborhood. http://www.ohiocity.org/about
Pew Research Center (2010) Millennials: Confident. Connected. Open to change. Washington, D.C., Pew Research Center
Porter M (1990) The Competitive Advantage of Nations. Basic Books, New York, NY
Rothgerber H. (2016) Better beer through Bellarmine chemistry. Bellarmine Magazine. Winter http://www.bellarminemagazine.com/better-beer-through-bellarmine-chemistry/
Rotunno T (2014) The BMW of beer: Brewery crafts luxury approach. CNBC May 3 http://www.cnbc.com/id/101636905
Satran J (2014) Here's how a six-pack of craft beer ends up costing $12. HuffPost Taste September 12 http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/09/12/craft-beer-expensive-cost_n_5670015.html
Saxenian A (1994) Regional Advantage: Culture and Competition in Silicon Valley and Route 128. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA
Schaefer, Tom. 2016. Personal Interview. Toledo, OH, February 9
Schnell SM, Reese JE (2003) Microbreweries as tools of local identity. Journal of Cultural Geography 21(1): 45-69
Schönberger C, Kostelecky, T ( 2011) 125th anniversary review: The role of hops in brewing. Journal of the Institute of Brewing 117(3): 259-267
Schultz K (2015) Drink your way to sustainability with these climate-conscious microbrews. Yes! Magazine April 3 http://www.yesmagazine.org/planet/drink-your-way-to-sustainability-with-these-climate-conscious-microbrews
Schumpeter JA (1942) Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. Harper & Row, New York
Scott A (1988) Metropolis. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA
Scott A (1993) The new southern California economy: Pathways to industrial resurgence. Economic Development Quarterly 7(3): 296-309
Scott A (2006) Entrepreneurship, innovation, and industrial development: Geography and the creative field revisited. Small Business Economics 26(1): 1-24
Shilton AC (2016) Yes! Magazine March 2 http://www.yesmagazine.org/new-economy/craft-beer-vs-budweiser-how-small-brewers-are-winning-back-the-neighborhood-20160302
Shinkle D (2016) Personal Interview. Jeffersontown, KY, February 27
Shortridge JR (1996) Keeping tabs on Kansas: Reflections of regionally based field study. Journal of Cultural Geography 16(1): 5-16
Smith N (1984) Uneven Development. Blackwell, Cambridge
Storper M, Walker R. (1989) The Capitalist Imperative. Blackwell: Cambridge, MA
The Beer Professor (2015) Community Space. December 29. http://www.thebeerprofessor.com/?p=1573
Thurnell-Read T (2014) Craft, tangibility and affect at work in the microbrewery. Emotion, Space, and Society, 13(1): 46-54.
Thurow LC (1978) Physchic income: Useful or useless? The American Economic Review 68 (2): 142-145.
Törnqvist G (2011) The Geography of Creativity. Edward Elgar, Northampton
Treanor, C, Costello B (2015) The Toledo metropolitan statistical area. Economic Trends September 3 https://www.clevelandfed.org/newsroom-and-events/publications/economic-trends/2015-economic-trends/et-20150903-the-toledo-metropolitan-statistical-area.aspx
Tremblay VJ. Tremblay, CH (2009) The U.S. Brewing Industry. The MIT Press, Cambridge
Vandenengel H (2014) The fresh flavors of wet hop ales. All About Beer Magazine, 35(5): November 14 http://allaboutbeer.com/article/wet-hop-beer/
Walker E, Brown A (2004) What success factors are important to small business owners? International Small Business Journal 22(6): 577-594.
Weilar S (2000) Pioneers and settlers in Lo-Do Denver: Private risk and public benefits in urban redevelopment. Urban Studies 37(1): 167-179
Wesson T, Nieva de Figueiredo (2001) The importance of focus to market: A study of microbrewery performance. Journal of Business Venturing 16(4): 377–403
Winograd M, Hais M (2014) How millennials could upend Wall Street and corporate America Governance Studies at Brookings, May http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/papers/2014/05/millennials%20wall%20st/brookings_winogradv5.pdf
Copyright (c) 2017 Neil Reid, Jay D. Gatrell
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
REGION is an open journal, and uses the standard Creative Commons license: Copyright We want authors to retain the maximum control over their work consistent with the first goal. For this reason, authors who publish in REGION will release their articles under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license. This license allows anyone to copy and distribute the article for non-commercial purposes provided that appropriate attribution is given to REGION and the authors. For details of the rights authors grant users of their work, see the "human-readable summary" of the license, with a link to the full license. (Note that "you" refers to a user, not an author, in the summary.) Upon submission, the authors agree that the following three items are true: 1) The manuscript named above: a) represents valid work and neither it nor any other that I have written with substantially similar content has been published before in any form except as a preprint, b) is not concurrently submitted to another publication, and c) does not infringe anyone’s copyright. The Author(s) holds ERSA, WU, REGION, and the Editors of REGION harmless against all copyright claims. d) I have, or a coauthor has, had sufficient access to the data to verify the manuscript’s scientific integrity. 2) If asked, I will provide or fully cooperate in providing the data on which the manuscript is based so the editors or their assignees can examine it (where possible) 3) For papers with more than one author, I as the submitter have the permission of the coauthors to submit this work, and all authors agree that the corresponding author will be the main correspondent with the editorial office, and review the edited manuscript and proof. If there is only one author, I will be the corresponding author and agree to handle these responsibilities.