5We expect this structural population shock to occur precisely around 1989 because of the large economic and political regional changes discussed above. To confirm, we regress time on country dummies and population levels for the period 1960-2017, allowing for a structural break in one year in slope and constant. Iteratively, all years are tested as transition periods. As expected, 1990 is confirmed to be the year in which all countries present a statistically significant structural change. One year before (1989) and one and two years after (1991, 1992) also reject this hypothesis for some countries, but not for all. We also calculate the tests for structural break found in Gendron-Carrier et al. (2017) and confirm 1990 as the year with a structural break.