3They argue that rational national pride requires some objective grounds to believe in a nation’s perfection, and normative national pride is not so strongly related to objective achievements and therefore can be more easily manipulated. The practical implication of this difference stems from the fact that in their search for objectively grounded national pride people would be eager to foster country achievements and their maintenance of normatively imposed pride requires in many cases just reliably protected wishful thinking (Fabrykant, Magun 2015). Elements of this argument may well apply to cities, but a more sophisticated question on urban pride than the one available for this paper would be required to test its applicability.